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Economic impacts on irrigated agriculture of water conservation programs in drought
发布时间: 2014-07-07   来源:

干旱地区节水项目对农业灌溉的经济影响

作者:Frank A. Ward

期刊:《水文学杂志》,2014年1月,508卷:J 114–127

关键字:灌溉;抗旱适应性;盐度;流域;节水项目

摘要:为了适应世界干旱地区水资源短缺的现状,需要调整灌溉模式,继续采用经济激励方法来维持粮食安全和提高农业收入。同时,目前相关证据表明气候变化和日益增长的人口加剧了这一需求。基于美国西南部最近出现的严重干旱,本研究主要分析美国北部的格兰德河子流域灌溉技术的敏感性、影响以及适应性。本研究解释了在面临地表水短缺的情况下,不同水平的节水补偿的经济激励对灌溉技术、农种植结构和水源选择的影响。研究结果表明,当地表水供水减少,即使是抽水成本增加或者产量减低,农民宁愿到含水层抽水。但当节水可带来更低的经济成本的情况下,会产生一个重要的农业干旱适应机制,即通过将地面灌溉转化到采用节水灌溉技术。此外,利用公共补贴将洪水用于滴管会抵消干旱对农民收入的负面影响。这些补贴会提高粮食作物的价值,减少农作物用水,但会提高作物的水分消耗。该分析干旱适应性的影响和调节机制的方法同样适用于解决水资源危机,食品安全和节水政策的制定。鉴于政策制定者需要减少未来气候变化导致的经济损失,本研究成果也可以为世界上干旱地区制定适应机制提供参考。

Economic impacts on irrigated agriculture of water conservation programs in drought

Author: Frank A. Ward

Journal : Journal of Hydrology,Volume 508, 16 January 2014, Pages 114–127

Keywords: Irrigation; Drought adaptation; Salinity; River basin; Water conservation programs

Abstract: The need to adapt irrigation patterns to water shortages in the world’s dry regions continues to inspire economically attractive measures to sustain food security and improve farm incomes. Ongoing evidence of climate variability and growing populations amplify the importance of this search. Motivated by recent severe drought in the southwestern United States, this study analyzes vulnerability, impacts, and adaptability by irrigation technology in a sub-basin of North America’s Rio Grande. The study accounts for economic incentives affecting choices on irrigation technology, crop mix, and water source in the face of water conservation subsidies under various levels of surface water shortage. Findings show that when surface water supplies are reduced, farmers shift to aquifer pumping even when pumping raises the cost of production or reduces yield. An important on-farm drought adaptation mechanism comes by converting from surface irrigation to water conserving irrigation technologies when faced with lower financial costs for conversion. Public subsidies to convert from flood to drip irrigation offset many of the negative impacts of drought on farm income. These subsidies also raise the value of food production, reduce the amount of water applied to crops, but can increase crop water depletions. Our approach for analyzing drought adaptation impacts and adjustment mechanisms can be applied where water shortages loom, food security is important, and water conservation policies are under debate. Results provide insights for the design of adaptation mechanisms for the world’s dry regions for which policymakers need to reduce economic damages from future climate variability and change.

文献来源:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022169413007439

翻译:王丽婷  校核:刘淼

 
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